International experience demonstrates that energy service companies (ESCOs) can contribute substantially to scaling up implementation of EE projects. However, ESCOs face multiple barriers for their particular business model. Many of these are regulatory and policy based – and many are unintended. Governments can facilitate and promote the establishment and growth of ESCOs through legislative, regulatory and policy initiatives to overcome the barriers. Dilip R. Limaye is sharing his 30 years of experience in identifying these barriers and defining actions that governments can take to overcome them. He shows how business models can be adapted in any country and offers a road map for ESCO development applicable even where the enabling environment may not be strong.